THE IMPACT IN THE CLASSROOM
Improvements in Interval Time Tracking and Effects on Reading Achievement
This significant journal Psychology in the Schools reviews two controlled studies of 400 elementary and high school students in the public school system, over the duration of two years. The studies found that those students who underwent 3-4 weeks (15-18 hours) of Interactive Metronome(IM) training resulted in a 7-20% greater growth in reading/math achievement over the control group subjects.
Timing in Child Development Study
A correlation study of 585 children in a public school district found significant correlations between IM score and academic performance in reading, mathematics, language, science, social studies, and study skills. The researchers concluded that timing and rhythmicity play a foundational role in the cognitive processes underlying performance in these academic areas. The results were published by the High/Scope Foundation, a non-profit educational research institution.
Academic Fluency Study
More than 1500 middle and high school students were pre-tested using selected subtests of the Woodcock Johnson III (WJ III) standardized test. The students then received 12 one-hour sessions of IM. When the IM treatment was complete, the students were post-tested using the same subtests of the WJ III. Analysis of the aggregate results showed statistically significant increases in students grade equivalent (GE) performances in the following areas:
• Reading Fluency Increased by 2.25 (GE) • Math Fluency Increased by 1.7 (GE)
High School Academic Study
The largest public school in Florida conducted a controlled study of 360 ninth and tenth grade students to examine the correlation between improvements in students' timing and academic achievement. Post-test results showed the IM group scored significantly higher in broad reading and reading fluency as compared to the Control Group. Those students' math calculation skills, math fluency, and attention also improved significantly.
Title I Study
This study involved fourth and fifth grade students identified as Title I eligible and scoring in the lowest three stanines on the reading subtest of Stanford Achievement Test Edition Nine. Forty of the students participated in 12 sessions of IM training. Forty other students formed the Control Group and were matched to Research Group students on the basis of School Ability Index scores from the Otis Lennon School Ability Test.The Research and Control Groups were both pre-and post-tested with the Woodcock Johnson III reading and math fluency subtests. The Research (IM) Group achieved significantly higher post-test reading fluency performance (1.67 grade equivalency higher) than did the Control Group.
The STAR reading assessment was also administered pre-and post-training. The results of the IM-treated students demonstrated increases averaging one to two grade levels.
The students' pre and post-training Stanford Achievement Test Ability-Achievement Comparison (AAC) range standings were also reviewed. As a group, the students in the IM Group increased their AAC range standing from Low (achievement is below ability) to Middle (achievement is at ability level) or High (achievement is above expectations). The Control Group, on the other hand, either remained at the Low or Middle range or decreased from Middle to Low. *Title I is the largest federal aid program for elementary and secondary schools.
A THREE-LEVEL HYPOTHESIZED EXPLANATION OF THE IM EFFECT (McGrew, 2012)
Interactive Metronome (IM) is believed to improve the resolution and efficiency of an individual’s internal brain clock(s) and temporal processing. In turn, it is hypothesized that this results in more efficient brain connectivity, communication, and synchronization via increased integrity of the brains white matter tract communication system, producing more efficient communication between critical brain networks. In particular, research and theory suggests that IM training increases the efficacy of the parietal-frontal brain network, the brain network most associated with general intellectual functioning, working memory, controlled attention and executive functions.
The primary conclusions from the detailed scientific explanation of the IM are:
1. The diversity of performance domains positively impacted by IM technology is due to IM improving the function of crucial brain-based domain-general neurocognitive mechanisms.
2. The precise, real-time IM millisecond feedback impacts the temporal processing resolution of the internal brain clock, which in turn improves neural efficiency—and thus, more efficient temporal and information processing in the brain.
3. The IM effect appears to be the result of increased efficiency and synchronization of communication between the primary brain structures that comprise the functional brain networks involved in performing both the cognitive and motor demands of IM training.
4. IM technology may be improving brain network communication, especially within the major brain networks at the core of the P-FIT(parietal-fontal integration) model of general intelligence. IM technology may be improving the efficiency of the parietal-frontal brain network which is critical to general intellectual functioning, working memory, controlled attention, and overall cognitive efficiency.
5. One of the most important IM training outcomes (but not the only outcome) is improved focus via increased efficiency of the attentional control system (ACS) that maintains goal related information active in working memory in the presence of internal (mind wandering) and external distractions. Improvement in efficiency of executive functions and working memory results in more efficient complex cognitive processing and learning.
Interactive Metronome: An Integration of Brain Clock, Temporal Processing, Brain Network, and Neurocognitive Research and Theory (Dr. Kevin S. McGrew)